Function and diseases of the leukocytes in the blood.
The blood count – leukocyte values – This diagnosis, too high values of the leukocytes, is an indication of a reaction of the immune system to a disease. This does not always have to be bad – What leukocytes are at all and what causes high values can be found here:
Leukocytes are white blood corpuscles that occur in the blood, bone marrow and the so-called lymphatic organs of our body and are also called immune cells. They are responsible for the defense against pathogens in the body.
If leukocyte values are too high:
Like small guards, they are constantly patrolling the entire body and looking for pathogens or other cells they can fight to keep our bodies healthy.
If these leukocytes are too high or too low, this is always a sign that something is wrong in our body. For the defense against pathogens, white blood cells are increasingly formed, so that the disease-causing intruders can be made harmless, the number of leukocytes is increased.
The white blood cells fight against pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, tumor cells or other toxins. There are three differently shaped cell types among the leukocytes. Once the granulocytes, the lymphocytes, and the monocytes. They have a different appearance and can be visualized in the laboratory by different staining in order to get to the diagnosis of increased leukocytes.
Diagnosis and investigation of leukocyte values
How is the diagnosis of leukocytes too high? By a blood or urine examination, the diagnosis is made increased leukocytes. There are therefore quite different diseases that lead to increased leukocytes so that this diagnosis must always be taken to the bottom. The value of the leukocytes is also determined for each blood test. And even if these values are increased, a serious disease does not always have to be the cause.
If the leukocytes are increased, this can be partly detected with a naked eye during a urine examination. The urine is then no longer clear, but cloudy. As a cause of increased leukocytes in the urine can be a bladder inflammation, an inflammation of kidneys or kidney basins or also a medication intake. For these reasons, the leukocytes are usually too high.
In the male sex, increased leukocytes indicate a prostate disease, which must also be immediately investigated. In most cases, the physician will arrange further blood tests at a determination that the leukocytes are too high so that the cause can be approached more closely.
A specific blood test for the leukocytes can help the physician to diagnose these much more differentiated and divided into different subgroups. Increased leukocytes can indicate bacterial inflammation in the body. But even people with burns can have increased leukocyte values. In addition to the allegedly more harmless diseases, too high leukocyte values can also indicate leukemia, that is, the so-called blood cancer. The doctor will use all available diagnostic tools to make the diagnosis as good as possible and as quickly as possible.
Causes of too high leukocyte values
Stress can also be a factor that is characterized by increased leukocytes. If no other cause of the disease is found, stress can also be a trigger for the too high values.
In this case, as well, the patient should discuss with the physician the necessary measures and, above all, try to reduce his or her stress. Increased leukocytes can, therefore, indicate a large number of diseases, which can be both less severe and also life-threatening. In any case, a further diagnosis should be established together with the family doctor in order to get to the root cause of the increased leukocytes.
In any case, a serious disease, which may also be life-threatening, should be excluded in the diagnosis of increased leukocytes.
Leukocytes in the laboratory
Today’s laboratory technology and advances in research allow laboratory workers, blood or urine to diagnose increased leukocytes more accurately and more specifically to the different diseases and their pathogens so that in most cases a targeted diagnosis is made very quickly can be. It is important now that the patient does not take this diagnosis lightly, but relies on his doctor.
The doctor’s statement about the values does not have to be a long-term illness, but can also be managed quite quickly. In some cases, the diagnosis is increased leukocytes and the values of leukocytes are too high – even more trivial, but this decision should be left to the doctor.
Monocytes as part of the leukocytes
Monocytes count as white blood cells and belong to the leukocytes, they form the cellular components of the human blood, they have a diameter of 12 to 15 μm and are thus the largest cells in the blood circulation.
Fine granulations can be contained in their relatively broad hemispheres of cytoplasm. The nucleus of the monocytes is bright and eccentric. Its appearance can be bean, ball or kidney shaped.
Monocyte formation takes place in the bone marrow within monocyte poiesis via a cellular transition step from monoblasts, particularly hematopoietic stem cells. Growth factors such as GM-CSF (Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and M-CSF (Macrophage colony-stimulating factor) have an influence on this process. Monocytes circulate in the blood for about 12 to 48 hours. Here they represent approximately 2 to 8% of the total leukocytes and the leukocyte population. They, like the neutrophil granulocytes, have the ability to actively transition into the tissue. There they develop into different cell forms. An increased amount of monocytes in the leukocytes is called monocytosis, a deficiency of monocytopenia.
Granulocytes in leukocytes increased?
Granulocytes also belong to the white blood cells, the leukocytes, and are formed in the bone marrow from multipotent precursor cells. They are capable of active migration and attack pathogens to render them harmless. Therefore poisoning, allergies, and infections cause an increase in the granulocyte values.
In bacterial infections, the values of the rod-core neutrophil granulocytes in the leukocytes are mainly increased. This is also referred to as “neutrophilia” or a neutrophil granulocytosis.
If the granulocyte values in the leukocytes are reduced at the beginning of an infection or in the case of bone marrow damage, this condition is called granulocytopenia. At this stage, the leukocyte defense system and the immune system are significantly weakened, which increases susceptibility to infections.
Lymphocytes – part of the leukocytes
The precursor cells of the lymphocytes are parts of the white blood cells and are formed in the bone marrow. Their further development proceeds in the lymph nodes, spleen and other lymphatic organs. They also enter the blood and other tissues via the lymph system.
The main task of the lymphocytes is to selectively control foreign substances, in particular, infective agents, but their activity is also directed against modified, corporeal cells such as, for example, tumor cells. Two main classes of lymphocytes are distinguished: B-lymphocytes, which reach into the lymph nodes and the MALT and produce specific antibodies for the control of foreign antigens and T-lymphocytes, which approach the thymus and directly recognize foreign cells. A pathological reduction of the lymphocytes is called lymphopenia, a pathological increase as lymphocytosis.
Causes of increased leukocyte levels
The values of the leukocytes are too high when diseases are present and
- Blind inflammation of the lungs or inflammation of the lungs
- Morbid multiplication – leukocytosis
When does the leukocyte count increase in the blood?
In a large blood count, medical professionals quickly diagnose leukocytosis. This is a technical term. He describes that the leukocytes are too high. This usually happens in an illness. The white blood cells multiply in the blood of those affected if they suffer from infections or inflammations. If the number of white blood cells is over 10,000 cells per microliter of blood, leukocytosis exists. A number of white blood corpuscles increases especially in the case of a disease of pathogens.
When are the leukocytes considered elevated?
The normal value of the leukocytes determines the lower and upper limit of the leukocyte value in the blood. If the number of white blood cells is above the normal limit, the leukocytes are considered too high. The standard value of the white blood cells is between 5,000 and 10,000 antibodies in a microliter blood. This amount likewise comprises the three subgroups of the leukocytes. These include the granulocytes, the monocytes, and the lymphocytes. The granulocytes, also known as scavengers, continue to be divided into three headings.
Fresh cells are found in basophilic, neutrophil and eosinophilic granulocytes. These cells identify and destroy pathogens and foreign bodies in the organism. Therefore, a too high number of scavenging cells indicates a bacterial or viral attack. In the case of rod-core leukocytes, the standard value is 150 to 400 antibodies within one microliter of blood.
A severe pathogen is present when the doctor detects more than 400 white blood cells with a rod in a blood count. These include exclusively the neutrophil granulocytes. Their task is to destroy bacteria and viruses. Seven percent of the leukocytes represent the eosinophilic granulocytes. Thus, their normal value is 30 to 410 pieces per microliter of blood. If the number of these leukocytes is too high, there are toxic substances in the body of the affected person.
Especially at the beginning of a disease, the value of the white blood cells increases. In the case of a longer infection, the number decreases. This is due to a reduced post-production of the leukocytes from the bone marrow. Thus, leukocytosis often follows leukopenia. In a microbial blood, ten to seventy basophilic granulocytes are normally found. The scavengers take over the removal of viruses, fungi, parasites and bacteria. The destruction of the residues occurs through the monocytes.
In the blood of a healthy, adult human, there are usually between 200 and 800 monocytes. An increased amount of these killer cells indicates a strong attack with pathogens. This mainly affects the bacteria and viruses. The lymphocytes occupy a percentage of the leukocytes. In a microliter blood are 1,000 to 2,900 pieces. Also, their number increases significantly during infection.
Reasons for an increased leukocyte count
The most common reason for an increased number of white blood cells is an infection. There are certain courses of the disease. At the beginning of the disease, special types of leukocytes are too high. These are predominantly the neutrophil granulocytes. Their task is to destroy unspecified foreign bodies. This results in an increase in the monocytes. These absorb the viruses and foreign substances and digest them.
White blood cells, which occur more frequently in the blood, also exist at the end of an infection. There are primarily two categories of antibodies that increase. These are the lymphocytes and the eosinophilic granulocytes. If these leukocytes are too high, the doctors use the term “eosinophilic dawn”. The phenomena occur, especially in a healed lung inflammation.
When do leukocytes multiply?
In addition to various infections and inflammations, there are several causes for a proliferation of leukocytes. Certain viruses, as well as disorders in the organs, also lead to an increased number of:
- Neutrophil granulocytes,
- Eosinophilic granulocytes,
- Basophilic granulocytes,
- And monocytes.
If the leukocytes are too high, there is an inflammation in the organism of the affected patients. As an example, the patients suffer from appendicitis. This is called appendicitis. Inflammation of the tonsils also leads to a massive increase in the neutrophil granulocytes. Experts refer to the disease as tonsillitis. Further possible causes for the increase are a rheumatic disease or a chronic inflammation of the Darfur.
Especially the neutrophil granulocytes multiply with hormonal disturbances. For example, these leukocytes are too high if the doctors diagnose an excess of the parathyroid gland. Cushing’s syndrome also causes an increased amount of this form of white blood cells. If the affected persons suffer from the syndrome, they show an excess of cortisol in their organism. This is due to the fact that several drugs lead to the proliferation of the leukocytes. One of the remedies is the cortisone.
Reasons for eosinophilia and basophilia
If other leukocytes are too high, there is often a parasite infestation in the patients. This is particularly the case for the subgroup of eosinophilic granulocytes. They multiply in allergies, in intestinal worms and certain forms of cancer. The leukemia-designated blood cancer and lymph node cancer lead to the increase. The lymphoma cancer is called the medicine Hodgkin’s disease.
A strong multiplication of the eosinophilic granulocytes is called eosinophilia. If the concentration of the basophilic granulocytes increases, the disease is called basophilia. These leukocytes are too high when the patients are suffering from a specific form of blood cancer. This is chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
Causes of lymphocytosis and monocytosis
Also, the other types of leukocytes are high, as soon as a cancer disease is present. In lymphocytosis, the doctors diagnose an increased number of lymphocytes. Viruses are predominantly responsible for their multiplication. Examples are the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the hepatitis virus and the cytomegalovirus (CMV) virus.
An increase in monocytes indicates severe infections. These include, for example, malaria, tuberculosis, and endocarditis, which is an inflammation of the heart’s inner skin. If this category of leukocytes presents itself high, the doctors speak of a monocytosis.
If the leukocytes are too high, the organism reacts to a certain pathogen with an overproduction of the white blood cells. However, the formation of the leukocytes stagnates after some time. Therefore, an increased number of white blood cells follows a deficiency of these cells. In this case, the affected patients are infected with bacteria or viruses. To avoid this, doctors also prescribe medications for a high number of leukocytes.
Increased leukocyte levels in children
The standard values of antibodies in adults and children differ. The normal value of white blood cells in infants is 9,000 to 30,000 white blood cells per microliter blood. While 30,000 blood cells are leukocytosis in adults, the number of babies is the highest standard limit.
Small children between two and seven years have 6,000 to 17,000 antibodies per microliter blood. For schoolchildren, this number drops to 4,000 to 15,000 white blood cells per microliter blood. This means that there are no general values for leukocytosis. Instead, this diagnosis depends on the age of the patients.
In addition to a blood test, a urine sample indicates an increased amount of the antibodies. If the body produces numerous white blood cells, the organism ejects them through the urine. This takes place in the form of white flocks, which are in the urine. In men, this phenomenon indicates prostate disease.
Summary of elevated leukocyte values
If the leukocytes are too high, the affected patients suffer from infection or inflammation. There are different reasons for the increase in the individual subgroups of the antibodies. Certain viruses cause a strong proliferation of basophilic granulocytes. At the beginning of infection, the neutrophil granulocytes are increased. Monocytes and eosinophilic granulocytes are shown more frequently when the disease heals. The leukocyte values in children differ from the values of the adults.