Diarrhea is a condition in which stool thin or watery issued with a frequency more often than usually.Umumnya, the cause of the diarrhea is food or drink dirty and contaminated with microorganisms.
Many people suffer from diarrhea once or twice one year.Usually, diarrhea lasts 2-3 days and can be treated with drugs that are sold bells.Tetapi in special cases, diarrhea can last for weeks.
Diarrhea situation in Indonesia
Diarrhea is still a major health problem in developing countries, including Indonesia. This is because the morbidity rate (comparison between groups of people who are sick and healthy in a population) and mortality is high.
Diarrhea was ranked thirteenth leading cause of death in general in Indonesia with a proportion of 3.5 percent. As for the category of infectious diseases, diarrhea ranks third.
The age group most experienced diarrhea are children under five, as many as 16.7 percent. Diarrhea prevalence was slightly higher in boys (14.8 percent) than girls (12.5 percent).
The results also demonstrate that the highest prevalence of diarrhea in children who live in homes without access to clean water that is 18.4 percent.
(Data were taken from the Ministry of Health research in 2007)
Generally, diarrhea can last up to a week and can be recovered without any treatment. However, if the condition is severe enough that you experience, immediately consult a doctor.
To determine whether the patient has diarrhea and the cause, the doctor will first gather information about symptoms experienced. The doctor will ask texture stool, stool frequency, daily habits of the patient.
In addition, you should also inform your doctor if there are other accompanying symptoms (high fever), unusual food consumption, psychological factors, and certain medications that may be lived.riksaan may include analysis of stool samples, blood tests and rectal,
There are several tests that can be performed to diagnose diarrhea, among others:
- stool analysis
The doctor will ask you to submit stool samples to be analyzed. It aims to identify possible infection. This analysis is done when you have diarrhea lasting more than two weeks, there is blood or pus in the stool, or there are other accompanying symptoms. In addition, this investigation has to be done if you have diarrhea after being treated in a hospital or because of a weak immune system (HIV).
- blood tests
The doctor will ask you to do a blood test if there is suspicion of diarrhea as a symptom of another disease. For example, the results of blood tests indicate the presence of inflammation. It is one of the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases.
If patients aged over 50 years old or have diarrhea that is difficult to heal, the doctor will perform a digital rectal examination. Periksanya way is by inserting a finger into the rectum to check the condition of abnormal.Pemeriksaan aims to diagnose diseases related to the rectum and colon.
Doctors can also recommend the following checks to help conclude the diagnosis:
Sigmoidoscopy, insert the tool sigmoidoscope (a thin flexible tube that has a camera on the end) into the rectum to the intestine
Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, but the procedure is similar to that used larger tube (colonoscope) to examine the overall condition of the intestine
In each patient, the symptoms of diarrhea vary. Some people put a very watery stool, while others issue a stool that is not too thin. However, there are some symptoms that are often associated with diarrhea. These symptoms include abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, headache, and loss of appetite.
Generally, in adults, diarrhea will recover within 2-4 days. In children, a longer recovery time is 5-7 days. If diarrhea lasts more than one week or the condition worsens, see a doctor immediately. Also be alert for signs of dehydration during the recovery period.
Diarrhea and Dehydration
Discharge through excessive fees coupled with the loss of appetite can affect dehydration. This condition should be treated because it can be fatal. Dehydration itself is more apt to occur in children. This is due to the resilience of children against the lower dehydration than adults.
Symptoms of dehydration in children include:
- Infrequent urination
- Dry mouth or cries without tears
- Bloody stool, red or black
- Seen often sleepy and unresponsive
- Appear sunken eyes or stomach
- If the pinched skin does not go back (turgor decreases)
While signs of dehydration in adults include:
- Fatigue and no energy
- Loss of appetite
- Tongue feels Kerin
- Eyes look sunken
- Muscle cramp
Symptoms of diarrhea usually go away by itself without any medical assistance. Diarrhea usually lasts up to 7 days. I
n certain cases, diarrhea may last longer depending on the cause. You can do the following to alleviate the condition being experienced:
Increase your fluid intake
When experiencing diarrhea, you should eat more chairman.Terutama if accompanied by vomiting. It is necessary to avoid and deal with dehydration. Drink a little but often. Liquid inlet slightly better than none at all.
If enough fluid intake, urine will be pale yellow or almost clear. Avoid giving fruit juice or soft drinks because it will make diarrhea worse.
At the time diarrhea lasts, experts recommend that you do not eat solid foods first. At least until you are able to eat normally. Eat fewer servings than usual. Also, avoid fatty and spicy foods.
Do not give solid food to children if they are dehydrated. Wait until they take in enough fluids. Food can only be given after they no longer show signs of dehydration. If the child is dehydrated, give food as usual.
For patients with diarrhea are prone to dehydration, your doctor will recommend the use of oral rehydration salts. You are physical wear weak, aged over 60 years, and has a serious medical history is highly recommended to consume ORS.
ORS sold at pharmacies. You stay up with water. ORS function is to replace salt, glucose, and other essential minerals that may be lost when enough fluid.
For people with children, the doctor will recommend ORS if visible signs of dehydration. ORS can be given every time the child defecate. The amount depends on the child’s weight.
The use of drugs
Antidiarrheal drugs can reduce symptoms and shorten the duration of diarrhea. However, the actual drug is not required because the immune system will fight it naturally. Antidiarrheal drugs most commonly used are loperamide because it can reduce bowel movement so that the liquid will be absorbed. This may help resolve diarrhea.
Do not take antidiarrheal medicine if diarrhea accompanied by other symptoms such as high fever and there is blood or pus in the stool. You should immediately consult a doctor.
The use of antibiotics for diarrhea
Usually, the doctor will recommend the use of antibiotics if the bacterial cause of diarrhea has been ascertained or if severe diarrhea occurs. It is not advisable to use antibiotics if the cause of diarrhea is not known for sure.
This is because antibiotics will not work if the cause is a viral infection. And if it is used for the mild disease will reduce the effect of antibiotics on a more serious condition.
Painkillers can not cope with diarrhea. However, administration of paracetamol or ibuprofen can help relieve symptoms such as fever that accompanies diarrhea and headache. Make sure you provide the appropriate medication symptoms and follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
Treatment of the primary condition
If you previously diagnosed with certain diseases that can cause diarrhea, you should do the treatment against the disease first.
This will alleviate the condition of diarrhea. If the main condition is not handled properly, then diarrhea as symptoms will continue.
Diarrhea generally occurs when fluid from the food can not be absorbed by the intestine well. Or there is too much fluid secreted into the intestine.
Normally, the colon will absorb fluids from the food we eat and leave droppings (feces) semi-solid. If the liquid from the food is not absorbed well, then the result will be watery feces or even liquid. This condition is influenced by many factors so that diarrhea can be short or long.
Diarrhea that lasts a short
Usually, this diarrhea is symptoms of intestinal infection, which is caused by:
- Viruses, such as rotavirus
- Bacteria, such as campylobacter
- Parasites, such as giardia intestinal
Other causes include psychological factors (anxiety), consuming alcohol, food allergies, appendicitis, or side effects of drugs.
Can be caused by:
- Bowel syndrome
- Celiac disease, a disease that causes the body to reject the gluten protein
- Crohn’s disease, inflammation of the lining of the digestive system
- Chronic pancreatitis
- bowel cancer
- Side effects removal of the stomach (gastrectomy)