Understanding Disease Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)


Kidney stone disease or nephrolithiasis is a condition when the kidneys are formed of hard materials like stone. This material is formed from waste substances in the blood that the kidneys filtered, then settles and gradually crystallized.

Precipitation usually occurs because you do not consume water as directed, are taking certain medications, or have a medical condition that can affect the levels of certain substances in the urine.

Based on the type, divided into four kidney stones: calcium stones, uric acid stones, struvite stones and cystine stones. The different types of kidney stones will affect the treatment and prevention measures.

Kidney stone disease is quite common in people aged 30-60 years and may be suffered by men and women. However, men have a higher risk than women. From the studies that have been conducted, it is thought to be linked to the male urinary tract blockage.

In diagnosing kidney stones, doctors initially will collect information on the symptoms experienced by patients. The doctor will also ask if there are family members who have the same disease, the daily diet, whether the patient was taking something that can trigger the formation of kidney stones.

Then, the doctor will perform a series of checks, including laboratory tests such as urine tests and blood tests. There was also a variety of scanning such as ultrasound, X-ray, and intravenous pyelogram (IVP).

Urine tests are needed to check whether there is an infection. If there is debris in the urine samples of kidney stones, doctors will use it to identify types of kidney stones who suffered so that proper handling.

While blood tests are needed to determine whether the kidneys are still functioning normally or not, as well as to examine the levels of certain substances that could potentially cause the formation of kidney stones.

After that, the doctor will perform the examination through the picture image will help confirm the diagnosis and to ensure accurate positioning of kidney stones. The type examination possible picture image is a CT scan, X-ray, ultrasound scans, and intravenous urogram (IVU) or intravenous pyelogram (IVP).

Today, the CT scan is the primary screening option in the diagnosis of kidney stone disease because the results are more accurate than other screening methods.

Usually, if the size of kidney stones is very small, you will not feel any symptoms. The kidney stones will come out naturally through the ureter (the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder).

You will feel something if the stone size greater than the ureter. At the time of going to urinate, the stone will rub against the wall of the ureter, causing irritation or even injury. This is why the urine of blood visible. Ayers also can obstruct the ureter or urethra (the tube exhaust end urine outside the body) so that urine output is inhibited.

Other symptoms of kidney stones may include:

  • Prolonged lower back pain, sometimes feels to the groin. In male patients, the pain is also felt in the testes and scrotum.
  • Side abdominal pain with duration varies, ranging from minutes to hours.
  • Restless.
  • Unable to lie still as difficult to find a comfortable position.
  • Nausea.
  • More frequent urination than usual.
  • Pain during urination.

There is blood in the urine caused by friction against kidney stones kidney or ureter. When kidney stones obstruct the ureter will be the accumulation of bacteria that can cause kidney infections.

Symptoms of the kidney infection are similar to the symptoms of kidney stones disease, but usually, the patient will also feel:

  • High fever.
  • Chills.
  • Fatigue.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Turbid urine color and smell bad.
  • Treatment

Treatment of kidney stones depends on the size of the stone. For the size of tiny stones can still pass through the urinary tract, the doctor will only advise you to consume water as recommended. The expectation was that the stone can go out alone together with the release of urine.

If the pain that you feel quite disturbing, the doctor will give you painkillers, such as ibuprofen or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To relieve symptoms of nausea and vomiting, the doctor will prescribe an antiemetic.

If a kidney stone has moved the location of the kidney to the ureter and cause pain severe enough, you will be referred for treatment at the hospital. Generally, this is done for patients who only had one kidney, pregnant, dehydrated, or aged over 60 years.

If the size of the kidney stone is too large (minimum diameter of 6-7 mm) to be excreted naturally, your doctor will recommend a special treatment to remove it. Type of treatment depends on the size and location of the kidney stone. Procedures for handling the large size of kidney stones are:

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
This procedure uses high-frequency sound waves to break kidney stones into small pieces. These flakes are expected to be removed easily naturally. You will feel a little less comfortable and afterward the doctor will usually give painkillers. ESWL 99% effective for kidney stones with a maximum diameter of 20 mm.
The doctor will use an instrument called cut eros kop. Such a device would be inserted into the ureter to see the location of the blockage. Once the location is unknown stone, the stone will be destroyed using other tools or with the help of a laser. You will be sedated total when undergoing this procedure. Ureteroscopy effective for kidney stones up to 15 mm diameter.
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
This procedure is usually done when ESWL procedure may not be carried out, for example, patients are obese. The doctor will make a small incision to the skin surface near the kidneys, then enter nephroscope that will destroy and remove a kidney stone chips. PCNL is effective for 21-30 mm diameter stone.


Kidney stone disease does have a tendency to recur, but prevention is very easy. You must pay attention to two things:

Water consumption according to the needs of the body. If you consume enough water, urine color will look bright.
Pay attention to diet. If your kidney stone is a type of calcium stones, avoid foods that contain lots of oxalates. Oxalate will prevent the absorption of calcium. However, consult your doctor before changing your diet.

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