Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis)

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understanding
Gallstone disease or cholelithiasis is a health disorder where there are stones in the bladder or bile ducts. In some cases, the stones can be found in the two organs. This stone is the result of bile that solidified into hard particles resembling pieces of stone-like gravel.

Bible itself is the only path that works to remove excess cholesterol from the body both as free cholesterol or as bile salts. While the gallbladder is a sac that serves to store bile before it is released into the intestine. The layout of the gallbladder under the liver.

If gallstones into the bile duct, they can lead to blockage and infection of the bile ducts (cholangitis). Blockage of the bile ducts that occurs will make the bacteria grow and flourish. As a result of infection arises in the ducts. The bacteria can also spread through the bloodstream and cause infections elsewhere in the body.

Gallstones can be divided into three types, namely cholesterol gallstones, bile pigment stones, gallstones and mix. As the name suggests, cholesterol gallstones are formed from cholesterol. Gallstones are usually yellow or green.

Furthermore, pigment gallstones/bilirubin, formed from calcium bilirubin too much bile. Gallstones that is usually dark in color, like black or brown. Gallstones last is a mix which is a mixture of cholesterol and bilirubin.

diagnosis
In diagnosing gallstones, doctors will collect information and an accurate physical examination of the patient. More than half the people with gallstones do not feel any symptoms. Complaints that may arise is bloated sometimes accompanied by discomfort in the body when eating fatty foods.

In addition to the collection of information, the doctor will also advise you to undergo investigation. Investigations can be done are an ultrasound or ultrasound examination. This is a standard examination to confirm the diagnosis of gallstones. An ultrasound exam has a very high accuracy rate, which reached 95%.

In addition to ultrasound, other checks that can be done is a CT Scan. Examination with CT Scan done when the stones are in the bile ducts. There was also the head MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). This check is necessary if there are complications of jaundice.

symptom
Gallstones generally do not cause complaints in patients with stone -during not enter into the bile duct. However, if the stone into the end of the bile duct, you can just feel the presence of specific complaints.

When small, it is possible to easily pass stone bile duct and into the duodenum. Gallstones may not cause symptoms until decades old.

Symptoms are quite striking on a gallstone disorder is severe pain and tend to settle in the bile duct. The pain arises if the bile duct is blocked by rocks. It also can lead to severe abdominal pain radiating to the back or shoulder. Nausea and vomiting often associated with these pain attacks.

Other symptoms that can arise are fever, pain entire surface of the stomach, stomach knotted, and the stomach was bloated. Severe pain may last more than 15 minutes and just disappear a few hours later.

The onset of pain often progresses slowly. But 30% of cases, the pain arises suddenly. Pain due to bile duct stones is usually settled and get worse when taking a deep breath.

Treatment
Gallstone treatment should be tailored to the development of rock and its impact on you. Because basically gallstones members of different impacts and effects between each person.

There are several treatment steps gallstones:

Early stage
As explained earlier, gallstones do not always cause symptoms. If gallstones do not cause any symptoms, doctors usually will not do special medical treatment. However, the doctor will make sure first that there is no possibility of complications that will occur. But if it is found the possibility of complications or other diseases that increase the risk of complications, it would require further treatment.

Next phase
At this stage, need to see the severity of the case. If the symptoms of pain you are feeling is still relatively mild and rarely appear, then the consumption of drugs is enough. Usually, the drugs required are Kenis drugs for pain. In addition, you should also change the diet to make it healthier.

But if the pain appears -particularly in the abdomen area was very intense, it requires no further medical treatment. Moreover, if the pain appears quite often. Possible needed operative action.

Operative actions
This medical procedure is required only if your symptoms are very severe and severe. The worst possibility is your gallbladder to be removed. There are several operative actions that can be done to address the problem of gallstones.

  1. laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    This is an operative procedure is most often recommended because it produces a very minimal incision. This action is also known as keyhole surgery for a very small incision size – like a keyhole. Recovery period you need take 1-2 weeks.

 

  1. open cholecystectomy
    This action is necessary if the size of gallstones big enough that can not be removed through keyhole surgery. Or it could be done if your condition does not allow it to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The causes can be various -like layout di Jang kai sure gallbladder or in the case of the obese. Recovery period long enough, that 1-1.5 month.

 

  1. ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography)
    To address the issue of blockage of the bile duct due to gallstones can also be done via the ERCP procedure. This procedure is done without lifting the gallbladder.

 

  1. ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy)
    It is a stone-solving procedure using sound waves. Several years ago, the use of ESWL procedure is very popular. However, this procedure is limited to patients who have actually considered for this therapy

 
Cause
We told you earlier that there are three types of gallstones. Each of these forms and have different content. Cholesterol gallstones containing at least 70% of cholesterol and the rest is calcium carbonate, calcium palmitate, as well as calcium bilirubin. The shape is more variable than the shape of pigment stones.

Gallstones are almost always formed in the gall bladder. The surface is smooth, round, prickly, and sometimes there are similar such as mulberries. Cholesterol gallstones occur due to the concentration of cholesterol in bile is high. It occurs as a result of very high blood cholesterol.

High cholesterol in the gallbladder may trigger precipitation gradually turned to stone. Another cause is the emptying of bile in the gallbladder is less than perfect. The rest of the bile in the bag after the process of pumping bile can also cause precipitation.

Unlike the pigment gallstones. Appearance bilirubin calcium stones, also called mudstone or pigment stones, do not vary. Often found irregularly shaped, small size, with variations in color between brown, red, to black, and sometimes numerous.

Shaped like mud or fragile soils. Pigment stones occur because of bilirubin poorly soluble in water. In addition, because of the precipitation of calcium salts or bilirubin due to infectious diseases.

Furthermore gallstones mix. This is the type of gallstone that is most prevalent-even reach 80%. Gallstones this one formed from cholesterol, bile pigment, and calcium salts. Usually multiple and little calcium “

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